A Survey on Cluster Head Selection in CGSR Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. Article (PDF Available) · January with Reads. This paper surveys the routing protocols forAd Hoc mobile wireless Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) [Chiang97]uses as basis. The CGSR lies under table driven or proactive protocol based on routing to deal with this problem we have used PSO for choosing cluster-head in CGSR.

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In our scheme, there protcool five possible states for nodes: Namely, an existing shorter path will replace the original route between the two nodes at which link is broken. Knowledge organization Particle swarm optimization Node – plant part.

In this way, it can reduce the probability of cluster overlapping. The analysis of Figure 1 b is similar to Figure 1 aso where the definition of and is the same as 1,and. For simplicity, we assume that node is fixed and node is moving, but actually they are all moving at all times.

To evaluate the clustering algorithm and clustering routing protocol, we implemented them in the simulator NS2. Hence, MANETs bear great application potential in these scenarios, including battlefield communications, emergency operation, disaster relief, survival search, and sensor dust.

Note that only when the node receives more than two protocool RTJ messages from another certain node, should they establish a new cluster.

From Figure 13it can be seen that with the speed growing up, the packet acceptance ratio of all the schemes is going down. If not, the node must perform a route discovery procedure to acquire a route to the destination.

Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. The physical layer uses the free space model and takes the actual aeronautical communication parameters into account, such as transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. References Publications referenced by this paper.

Each node is assigned a weight indicating whether the node is suitable to act as a cluster head. But to large scale networks, the frequent topology detection may invalidate the discovered routes, which would lead to high delay and network spending.

NULL, cluster head, cluster member, gateway, and cluster guest. Due to the frequent topology detection, an efficient and effective method of route maintenance in response to underlying network topology change is imperative because without routes validity the performance of a routing scheme in a dynamic, mobile environment is affected even adversely. In hierarchical-based routing [ 7 — 10 ], all nodes are divided into different clusters zones. Clustering is a mechanism to dynamically group nodes in MANETs into logically separating or nonoverlapping entities, called clusters.


Selection of cluster-head using PSO in CGSR protocol – Semantic Scholar

Figure 1 depicts the approaching and receding scenario of nodes and. From Figure 9it can be seen that, with the speed increasing, the average cluster head holding time of all the schemes is decreased. In this paper, we usually consider one-hop clusters, besides the only scenario; namely, when the cluster guest appears, in this case, the guest node is two hops away from the cluster head.

Introduction A mobile ad hoc network MANET [ 12 ] is a wireless communication network, at which nodes use peer-to-peer packets transmission and multihop routes to communication. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. As a result, ctsr will cost much time in routing maintenance. View at Google Scholar M.

A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

So, the cost metric represented as for simplicity of node can be expressed as whereand are the weight factor of parameters andrespectively, and if the parameter is more important, its weight factor will be greater. In a MANET of nodes, the degree of node, which is a good indicator of node density, can be easily denoted as where is the distance between nodes and.

Routing protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks are categorised on the basis of routing information update mechanism, use of temporal information for routing, topolgy information organization and miscellaneous classification based on ultization of specific resources.

It must send a REQ to its attached cluster head 3 firstly and then node 3 sends the message to node 7 through gateway nodes 5 and 6.

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As a result of it, the cluster head holding time is decreased. Note that when node 3 receives the REP, it will send the message along the local shortest route i. Showing of 2 extracted citations. Average end-to-end delay includes route finding, transmission time in MAC layer, and physical channel, which indicates the connectivity and efficiency of the network.

All of them somewhat ignored the scenario, namely, when a node moves out of its cluster head transmission range but still has a link to another cluster member belonging to pprotocol cluster head, whether the initial phrase of clustering will be reestablished or not.

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Its flow diagram is described in Figure 3. But due to the mobility and constant topology changes of MANETs, designing routing protocols for those networks is a challenging process, especially in the large-scale network. In order to utilize the network resources efficiently, HCA-R absorbs the quintessence of ZRP to use proactive strategy between nodes within individual clusters and reactive strategy between clusters, not like CBRP to use on-demand strategy between nodes of both intracluster and intercluster communication to purely decrease the routing overhead and HSR, CGSR to use table-driven strategy to communicate in both intra- and interzone to decrease average end-to-end delay but increase the cost of routing overhead unwillingly.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. According to the topology of networks, routing protocols can be classified into flat-based routing and hierarchical-based routing [ 56 ].

Thus, the relative velocity between nodes and is. In HCA-R, unless necessary, it will not activate the routing update process as far as possible to avoid additional expenses in both intracluster and intercluster communication and route maintenance phrase. This indicates that the HCA performs more stability when the density of nodes increases. Otherwise, it denotes that the two clusters just incidentally pass by each other in a short period and it is not worthy of merging.

Selection of cluster-head using PSO in CGSR protocol

In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. If the source and destination are in the different clusters, the source must take the intracluster strategy. Normalized routing overhead is the ratio of the total number of control message transmissions the forwarding of a control message at each hop is counted as one control transmission to the total number of data packets received, which indicates the efficiency of the routing protocol.

From Figure 11it can be seen that the HCA-R outperforms others as it estimates the link duration more accurately, and hence more stable clusters will be established. Correspondingly, the coordinates of node are and.