Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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But anyone who is not a man of learning is obliged to take these passages in their apparent meaning, and allegorical interpretation of them is for him unbelief because it le a ds to unbelief.

This is self-evident to any fair minded person.

On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy – Wikipedia

Since all this is now established, and since we, the Muslim community, hold that this divine religion of ours is true, 54 and that it is this religion which incites and summons us to the happiness that consists in the knowledge of God, Mighty and Majestic, and of His creation, that [end] 55 is appointed for every Muslim by the method of assent which his temperament and nature require.

But if other bodies are supposed, this state of affairs does not follow as a consequence. For this to happen, opinions must be divergent in the extreme, i. In these cases the masses must be told that only the learned are able to understand the true interpretation; or they must be given an easy allegorical explanation, according to the rules laid down by Ghazali.

Moreover, this accidental effect of this art is a thing which may also occur accidentally from the other arts. Peace on you, with the mercy and blessings of God. In these cases the duty of the elite is to interpret them allegorically, while the duty of the masses is to take them in their apparent meaning.

The duty of the elite here is to apply such interpretation; while the duty of the masses is to take fask in their apparent meaning in both respects, i. Harm from it is accidental, like harm from taking medicine, drinking water, or studying law.

A nother class is the people of certain interpretation: Error in this matter by the demonstrative class is excused. The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e.


But if someone other than ourselves has already examined that subject, it is clear that we ought to seek help towards our goal from what has been said by such a predecessor on the subject, regardless of whether this other one shares our religion or not.


So the objector should believe the same about the study of intellectual reasoning.

For those religious sayings in the precious Book which are expressed to everyone have three properties that indicate their miraculous character: For death from water by choking is an accidental matter, but death by thirst is essential and necessary. Philosophy contains nothing opposed to Islam. The difficulty is compelling, as follows.

Thus when the question arises one considers which of these four [last named modes of] existence is more persuasive to the class of persons who find it impossible [to believe] that what is meant by it is essential existence, i.

The purpose of this treatise 2 is to examine, from the standpoint of the study of the Law, 3 whether the study of philosophy and logic 4 is allowed by the Law, 5 or prohibited, or commanded, either by way of recommendation or as obligatory. Thus it is not strange if the same thing that occurs accidentally in the art which calls for practical virtue should occur accidentally in the al-masal which calls for intellectual virtue.

The third is the reverse of this: They even hold that God sends premonitions in al-maql of particular events. The rule in this regard is that which was followed by Abu Hamid in The book of the distinction: Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research.

In addition to all this we hold that Abu Hamid was mistaken about the Peripatetic philosophers, in ascribing to them the assertion that God, Holy ak-maqal Exalted, does not know particulars at all.

We intend to al-maqql a study of its teachings at the apparent level, and thus help to remedy the grievous harm done by ignorant partisans of philosophy and religion. If unanimous agreement is established by a method which is certain, such [a result] is not sound; but if [the existence of] agreement on those things is a matter of opinion, then it may be sound.

Moreover, this is a situation that is self-evident not in the scientific arts alone but also in the practical arts; for there is not one of them which a single man can construct by himself. This is what happened to the Sufis and to those scholars who followed this path: In general, everything in these [texts] which admits of allegorical interpretation can only be understood by demonstration.


This difference is insufficient to justify a charge of unbelief. And if he who would judge what is allowed and forbidden is required to combine in himself the qualifications for exercise of personal judgment, namely knowledge of the principles [of law] and knowledge of how to draw inferences from those principles by reasoning, how much more properly is he who would make judgments about beings required to be qualified, i. This is very apparent from [a comparison of] the condition of the first believers with the condition of those who came after them.

Some features of WorldCat will not be available. Averroes on the harmony of religion and philosophy: Luzac for the Trustees of ‘The E. This interpretation ought not to be expressed to the dialectical class, let alone to the masses. The reason for that [in the case la-maqal the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.

In memory of my father

It cannot be objected: Now the methods available to men of [arriving at] judgments are three: The position clearly is that this matter belongs to the class [3] about which there is disagreement. Printed for the Trustees of the “E. This is the way to resolve this difficulty, as it appears to fael and what has been said is incontestable and indubitable.

But when those who came after them used allegorical interpretation, their fear of God grew less, their dissensions increased, their love for one another was removed, and they became divided into sects. Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you.

Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

They are the overwhelming mass, for no man of sound intellect is exempted from this kind of assent. And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and draw attention to and warn against what does not accord with the truth, at the same time excusing them. But both alternatives are impossible for God the Glorious. If this [apparent meaning] accords there is no argument.